Advertisement

Global morbidity and mortality of lower respiratory infections: A population -based study

Published:November 13, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rmed.2022.107042

      Highlights

      • Lower respiratory infections remain a major public health problem threatening human health.
      • The burden of lower respiratory infections in 2019 varies greatly due to geographical location.
      • Our results can help public health policymakers develop and implement targeted prevention and management programs.

      Abstract

      Background

      This study provides a comprehensive, comparative and updated estimates of temporal patterns of lower respiratory infections (LRIs) globally over the past three decades.

      Methods

      The data on morbidity and mortality of patients with LRIs at the global, regional and national levels were retrieved from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2019 study.

      Results

      Globally, the incident cases of LRIs increased from 414,342,866 [95% uncertainty interval (UI):383,529,625 to 449, 086,938]in 1990 to 488,902,504(95% UI: 457,572,987 to 522,635,542)in 2019 with the age standardized incidence rate (ASIR) decreased from 8,276/100,000 persons (95% UI: 7,727 to 8,892) to 6,295/100,000 persons (95% UI: 5,887 to 6,737) between 1990 and 2019. Number of LRIs deaths were 2,493,200 (95% UI: 2,268,184 to 2,736,184) in 2019, a decrease of 24.9% (95% UI: −34.4 to −15.4) in the past 30 years. Meanwhile, the age-standardized death rate (ASDR) declined also from 67/100,000 persons (95% UI: 61 to 73) in 1990 to 34/100,000 persons (95% UI: 31 to 38) in 2019. Moreover, the numbers and age-standardized rates per 100,000 persons of morbidity and mortality varied widely by age, sex, Socio-Demographic Index (SDI) quintiles, and geographical locations in 2019.

      Conclusion

      LRIs remain a major public health concern . Some differences in age, sex, SDI quintiles, and geographical locations contribute to LRIs-related global health policy development and health system resource optimization.

      Keywords

      Abbreviations:

      LRIs (lower respiratory infections), GBD (Global Burden of Disease), UI (uncertainty interval), ASIR (age standardized incidence rate), ASDR (age-standardized death rate), SDI (Socio-Demographic Index), ASR (age-standardized rate), EAPC (estimated annual percentage change), CI (confidence interval)
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Respiratory Medicine
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • GBD 2019 Diseases and Injuries Collaborators
        Global burden of 369 diseases and injuries in 204 countries and territories, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019.
        Lancet. 2020; 396: 1204-1222https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30925-9
      1. GBD 2016 Lower Respiratory Infections Collaborators; Estimates of the global, regional, and national morbidity, mortality, and aetiologies of lower respiratory infections in 195 countries, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016.
        Lancet Infect Dis. 2018; 18: 1191-1210https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30310-4
        • GBD 2015 LRI Collaborators
        Estimates of the global, regional, and national morbidity, mortality, and aetiologies of lower respiratory tract infections in 195 countries: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.
        Lancet Infect Dis. 2017; 17: 1133-1161https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(17)30396-1
        • Blasi F.
        • Torres A.
        Respiratory infections management: still a challenge.
        Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2015; 32: 117-118https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pupt.2015.05.003
      2. THe top 10 causes of death. Retrieved Dec 10 ,2020,from https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/the-top-10-causes-of-death.

      3. Global Burden of Disease Collaborative Network. Global burden of disease study 2019 (GBD 2019) results. Seattle: Institute for health Metrics and evaluation (IHME). Source: Institute for health Metrics evaluation. Used with permission. All rights reserved. Available from http://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool (Accessed: July 2022).

        • Zheng Y.
        • Qiu X.
        • Wang T.
        • Zhang J.
        The diagnostic value of Metagenomic next-generation sequencing in lower respiratory tract infection.
        Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2021; 11694756https://doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2021.694756
        • Ferrari R.
        • Bertolozzi M.
        Postnatal mortality in Brazilian territory: a literature review.
        Rev Esc Enferm USP. 2012; 46: 1207-1214https://doi.org/10.1590/s0080-62342012000500024
        • Batista Filho M.
        • Cruz R.
        A saúde das crianças no mundo e no Brasil.
        Rev Bras Saúde Materno Infant. 2015; 15: 451-454
        • United Nations Children’s Fund/World Health Organization
        • Levels & Trends in Child Mortality. Report
        Estimatives Developed by the UN Inter Agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation. New York; 2015. Disponível Em:.
        2015 (Acessado em:7 de janeiro de 2017)
      4. GBD 2015 Eastern Mediterranean region lower respiratory infections Collaborators; burden of lower respiratory infections in the Eastern Mediterranean region between 1990 and 2015: findings from the global burden of disease 2015 study.
        Int J Publ Health. 2018; 63: 97-108https://doi.org/10.1007/s00038-017-1007-0
        • Cai H.
        Sex difference and smoking predisposition in patients with Covid-19.
        Lancet Respir Med. 2020 04; 8: e20https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30117-X
        • Global Health
        COVID-19 Sex-disaggregated Data Tracker: Sex, Gender and COVID19 USA.
        2020
        • GBD 2017 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence Collaborators
        Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 354 diseases and injuries for 195 countries and territories, 1990- 2017: a systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2017.
        Lancet. 2018; 392: 1789-1858https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32279-7
        • Butterworth M.
        • McClellan B.
        • Allansmith M.
        Influence of sex in immunoglobulin levels.
        Nature. 1967; 214: 1224-1225https://doi.org/10.1038/2141224a0
        • Cook I.F.
        Sexual dimorphism of humoral immunity with human vaccines.
        Vaccine. 2008; 26: 3551-3555https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.04.054
        • Villacres M.C.
        • Longmate J.
        • Auge C.
        • Diamond D.J.
        Predominant type 1 Cmvspecific memory T-helper response in humans: evidence for gender differences in cytokine secretion.
        Hum Immunol. 2004; 65: 476-485https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humimm.2004.02.021
        • Wikby A.
        • Mansson I.A.
        • Johansson B.
        • Strindhall J.
        • Nilsson S.E.
        The immune risk profile is associated with age and gender: findings from three Swedish population studies of individuals 20-100 years of age.
        Biogerontology. 2008; 9: 299-308https://doi.org/10.1007/s10522-008-9138-6
        • GBD 2015 LRI Collaborators
        Estimates of the global, regional, and national morbidity, mortality, and aetiologies of lower respiratory tract infections in 195 countries: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.
        Lancet Infect Dis. 2017; 17: 1133-1161https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(17)30396-1
      5. GBD 2015 Eastern Mediterranean region lower respiratory infections Collaborators. Burden of lower respiratory infections in the Eastern Mediterranean region between 1990 and 2015: findings from the global burden of disease 2015 study.
        Int J Pub Health. 2018; : 97-108https://doi.org/10.1007/s00038-017-1007-0
        • Wonodi C.B.
        • Deloria-Knoll M.
        • Feikin D.R.
        • Deluca A.N.
        • Driscoll A.J.
        • Moisi J.C.
        • et al.
        Evaluation of risk factors for severe pneumonia in children: the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health study.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2012; 54: S124-S131https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/cir1067