Editor's Choice Articles
The role of mast cells in allergic inflammationThe histochemical characteristics of human basophils and tissue mast cells were described over a century ago by Paul Ehrlich. When mast cells are activated by an allergen that binds to serum IgE attached to their FcɛRI receptors, they release cytokines, eicosanoids and their secretory granules. Mast cells are now thought to exert critical proinflammatory functions, as well as potential immunoregulatory roles, in various immune disorders through the release of mediators such as histamine, leukotrienes, cytokines chemokines, and neutral proteases (chymase and tryptase).
The discovery of α1-antitrypsin and its role in health and diseaseα1-Antitrypsin (AAT) is the archetype member of the serine protease inhibitor (SERPIN) supergene family. The AAT deficiency is most often associated with the Z mutation, which results in abnormal Z AAT folding in the endoplasmic reticulum of hepatocytes during biogenesis. This causes intra-cellular retention of the AAT protein rather than efficient secretion with consequent deficiency of circulating AAT. The reduced serum levels of AAT contribute to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the accumulation of abnormally folded AAT protein increases risk for liver diseases.
Staging of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): A reviewLung cancer remains the most common cause of cancer-related mortality in Scotland, accounting for 28.9% of all cancer deaths in 2007.1 Current guidelines recommend assessment of patient fitness and operability by a multi-disciplinary team when selecting management options.2–6 Two of the most important prognostic markers are the stage of disease and ECOG performance status. The most commonly used cancer staging system is the tumour, node, metastasis (TNM) staging system, which is maintained by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the International Union Against Cancer (UICC).
Effects of nutritional supplementation combined with low-intensity exercise in malnourished patients with COPDThe first aim of this study was to investigate the effects of nutritional supplementation combined with low-intensity exercise on body components, exercise tolerance, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in malnourished patients with COPD. The second aim of this study was to examine the degree of systemic inflammation and the actual changes in levels of systemic CRP, TNFα, IL-6 and IL-8 actual changes after a combination of nutritional supplementation and low-intensity exercise in these patients.
Airway eosinophilia in remission and progression of asthma: Accumulation with a fast decline of FEV1As it is unknown whether complete asthma remission or progression of asthma is associated with airway inflammation and remodeling, we assessed these characteristics in bronchial biopsies of relevant subsets of asthma patients.